Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Physical Regions of Canada Part 2.

In groups, create a poster that shows one of the regions below.  Include:
  1. Map of the region
  2. Information on the climate
  3. Information on geographical features
  4. Any other interesting information on the region

Physical Regions of Canada

There are seven physical regions of Canada.  They are:
  1. The Western Mountains and Valleys or the Cordillera.
  2. The Far North
  3. The Prairies
  4. The Near North of the Canadian Shield
  5. The Great Lakes Lowlands
  6. The Ottawa-St. Lawrence Lowlands
  7. The Atlantic Region

Using Google Maps, determine in which region each of these places is located.  Then using "street view" write one sentence to describe what you see of the physical landscape for each place.  Post your answers on your blog.
  1. Kamloops, British Columbia
  2. Iqaluit, Nunavut
  3. Medicine Hat, Alberta
  4. Nipigon, Ontario
  5. Crescent Bay, Ontario
  6. Donnacona, Quebec
  7. Grand Falls-Windsor, Newfoundland

Thursday, November 25, 2010

The Importance of Place

What is a place?  
In small groups, make a list of things that a place must have to be called a "place".

 A place:
  1. has a location
  2. has physical and cultural characteristics
  3. can change
  4. interacts with other places
  5. is in a region

For example: 


1. Sicily can be found at 38º 08' N, 013º 23' E.

2. It is a large island with mountains and volcanoes and long sandy warm beaches.
3. Sicily has suffered from numerous eruptions from Mount Etna (the largest volcano in Europe) and earthquakes that have leveled towns.

4. Sicily has been invaded numerous times from the Greeks, the Carthaginians from North Africa, from the Romans, and from the Germans, the Americans, the Canadians, the British and the Australians in World War II.

5. Sicily is part of Italy and lies in the Mediterranean Sea.

Now, with a partner, chose a place in the region you researched and show the five things that your place must have, to be called "a place".  Post it on your blog.

North West - Mounties and First Peoples

Read pages 177-178 in your textbook: Answer these questions fully in your blog.

  • What was the connection between whiskey and the fur trade?  What were the long term consequences for the Aboriginal people?  
  • Imagine what would have happened if whiskey had not been part of the fur trade.  What would have been the impact for the Assiniboin people, the Mounties, and Canada?

Read pages 179-182 in your textbook. Answer the following questions fully in your blog.

  • The treaties negotiated with the Cree and Saulteaux gave them a tiny piece of land compared to the 60% of Manitoba that they were asking for.  Why did the Cree and Saulteaux agree to what the Canadian government offered?  How were the Cree and Saulteaux cheated by the government?  How did the government justify this?  Imagine how the prairies would be different if the Aboriginal peoples on the prairies had been successful at farming.  What do you think might be different today?

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

The North West Mounted Police and The First Nations & Metis

Hollywood saw the North West Mounted Police with a romantic eye.  They were handsome, dashing, brave, loyal, tough, proudly Canadian and every woman's dream.  Conversely, they were also sometimes seen as bumbling, humourous and foolish.  Unfortunately, Hollywood's image of the Indigenous people of North America is quite different.  They were the villians, blood-thirsty and dirty.  Sometimes, they were portrayed as the 'noble savage'.  No matter how the Mounties or Indigenous people were portrayed, it was a stereotypical portrayal - one that did not show the reality of whom these people were.

Look at the following clips.  How have the people here been portrayed?

"North West Mounted Police" (1940)

"Rose Marie" (1954)

"Dudley Do Right" (1999)

"Due South"

"Monty Python's Flying Circus"

"The Lone Ranger" (1956)

It is important to remember when you are watching television or movies that they are someone else's opinion and not fact.  Look at the following links to find more factual information about the Mounties:


Click here.

For more information on the Metis:

Click here

For more information on the Plains people:

Click here.
In partners, choose one of the above three groups of people.  On your blog, write the outline of a movie or tv program that would show the reality of the group you have chosen and not a stereotype.  Include factual information and remember that your characters should portray "real" people, not just historical figures that you have read about or stereotypes that you might see in a Hollywood film.

Important People To Know Up To 1885

You will be responsible for knowing who these people and terms are.  You will be tested on this on December 16th.

  • William Lyon Mackenzie - a Scottish newspaperman who stood against the Family Compact and led the Rebellion in Upper Canada.
  • Louis Joseph Papineau - a French-Canadian lawyer and politician that led the Fils de la Liberte against the Chateau Clique in the Rebellion of Lower Canada.
  • John Lambton, Earl of Durham - Lord Durham was appointed Governor in Chief of the Canadas.  He was tasked by the British government to review the political problems and create a report for the British government.  He recommended the colonies be joined together, and eventually all of British North America be joined together.
  • George-Etienne Cartier - wealthy businessman who invested in and promoted railways.  He had fought in the Rebellion in Lower Canada, had been exiled and returned to become the leader of the parti bleu.  Along with John A. Macdonald, he was a driving force behind Confederation.
  • John A. Macdonald - Born in Scotland but raised from age 5 in Canada, Macdonald became the leader of the Tories.  He was one of the driving forces behind Confederation and became the first Prime Minister of Canada. 
  • George Brown - established and published The Globe newspaper (today known as the Globe and Mail) and leader of the 'Clear Grits', a radical political party in Canada West.  Brown was vehemently against Confederation until he went on a holiday to England.  While there he observed the British Parliament and realized that they were tiring of the colonies.  He returned ready to support Confederation.
  • D'Arcy McGee - established and published the New Era newspaper in Montreal.  He was a spokesman for Catholic rights and was elected to the legislature.  He was a strong supporter of Confederation and worked with Macdonald and Cartier to ensure Confederation would be accepted in Canada.  He was assassinated in 1868 after Confederation, most likely by Patrick Whelan, a Fenian.
  • Fenians - an Irish society that planned to harm Britain by striking out at the Canadians from across the border into the US.  Most Irish that emigrated carried a resentment of the British with them.  The attacks they made into Canada helped to convince the colonies that it would be safer if they joined together under Confederation.
  • Gabriel Dumont - the military commander for Louis Riel at both rebellions.
  • Thomas Scott - a prisoner of the Metis in the Red River Rebellion, he was a very belligerent prisoner and verbally and physically abused his guards.  Having pushed the Metis too far, Riel sentenced him to death and he was executed by firing squad.  His death turned opinion against Riel in Canada West.
  • Sir Hugh Allan - a wealthy industrialist who had made his money in shipping, manufacturing and railway building - he was given the contract build the transcontinental railway on the condition that he help fund the Conservative Party (the Tories) and John A. Macdonald.
  • Big Bear - leader of the Cree - he led his people to join in the rebellion along with the Metis.
  • Crowfoot - Leader of the Blackfoot nation.  He was a pragmatist - he knew that change was coming and did not see a reason to stand with the Metis and put his people through the difficulties of fighting a rebellion.
  • American Civil War - a war between the northern and southern United States over states' rights.  The divisive issue was slavery.
  • Canada East - Lower Canada
  • Canada West - Upper Canada
  • Confederation - the joining together of the Canadian colonies (Canada West, Canada East, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island) to create the Dominion of Canada.
  • Parti Rouge - a small, radical political party led by Louis Joseph Papineau which attracted francophone farmers and business people who were opposed to the English commercial interests.
  • Parti Bleu - the most powerful political party in Canada East led by George-Etienne Cartier - focused on the economic development of Canada East and the protection of French Canadian rights.
  • Clear Grits - radical political party in Canada West led by George Brown.
  • Tories - more moderate political party in Canada West led by John A. Macdonald.
  • Charlottetown Conference - 1864 - a meeting of the Maritime colonies and the Canadas to discuss the possibility of Confederation.
  • Quebec Conference - fall of 1864 - the planning of the birth of the new nation, Canada, in which they decided on the division of powers between the provinces and the federal government; the delegates decided on a blueprint for Confederation that would be taken first to each province for debate and then to London and presented to the British parliament for approval.
  • British North America Act - Canada's constitution based on the resolutions decided upon at the Quebec Conference.  Passed by the British Parliament in 1867 in London and signed by Queen Victoria.
  • Dominion - a country that rules itself.
  • Hudson's Bay Company - a trading company that was established in British North America.  It was given control of Rupert's Land by the British government and also controlled all trading and commerce in this area.  The Hudson's Bay Company still exists today, however we know it as The Bay.
  • Red River Settlement - a settlement in what is now Manitoba.  It included Metis, 'country-born' (people of strictly European descent who were born in the Canadian colonies or in Rupert's Land), Scottish and Swiss colonists, and HBC employees.  This isolated community was the centre of the Red River Rebellion of 1869.
  • Rupert's Land - An area that extended from what is now northern Quebec and Ontario, into Nunavut, through Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta.  It was under the control of the Hudson's Bay Company.
  • Metis - people of the prairies who were descendants usually of French fathers and First Nations mothers.
  • Land speculators - someone who buys and sells land for profit.
  • Munitions - military weapons, ammunition, and equipment.
  • Provisional government - a temporary government established until the permanent government can be put into place.
  • Fort Garry - a HBC fort near Red River that was taken and held by the Metis during the Red River Rebellion.
  • Orange Order - an organization of pro-British citizens in Canada West who pushed for the arrest and hanging of Louis Riel after the execution of Thomas Scott.
  • Fort Carlton - an HBC fort near the new settlements of the Metis in Saskatchewan.
  • Bison - buffalo - the Metis depended on bison for their survival.
  • The List of Rights - a list created by the Metis during the time of the Red River Rebellion that included (amongst other things) the right for the people of Manitoba to elect their own Legislature, that all sheriffs, magistrates, constables, school commissioners, etc. be elected by the people, that all public documents and acts of Legislature be published in both official languages, that judges must speak English and French, and that treaties between First Nations and the Canadian government be concluded to ensure peace.
  • The Bill of Rights - created by the Metis leading up to the Northwest Rebellion - a far more detailed list than the List of Rights.
  • North West Mounted Police - the precursor to the RCMP.  An organized paramilitary policing force, formed to keep peace on the frontiers of Canada.
  • Batoche, the town where the Northwest Rebellion occurred in Saskatchewan.

General Essay Rubric

This is a general writing rubric (marking scale).  Consider these things when you write your essay:


I'm not there yet 
Readers are not sure about my meaning; I have included few details related to my topic.

 I'm getting there
Most of my writing is understandable; I could have included additional details.
 I'm there now
My writing is consistently clear and understandable; I have included adequate details.


I'm not there yet
My writing is disorganized; I use no or few transitions.

I'm getting there
My writing is arranged logically, but I could improve the structure; I use some transitions among the sections of my writing but more transitions would improve the flow of my writing.

I'm there now
My writing has a logical structure that makes it easy for the readers to follow; I have included adequate and effective transitions among the sections of my writing.


I'm not there yet
My words are inaccurate, misused or unclear.

I'm getting there
My words are sometimes appropriate, effective and purposefully selected.

I'm there now
My words are consistently appropriate, effective, and purposefully selected.


I'm not there yet.
I show little or no originality in the details I have included; I show no originality in comparisons; I use no quotes to support my thesis.

I'm getting there
I have included a few original details; I have included one comparison that is original and effective; I have included only one or two quotes and they are only marginally effective in supporting my thesis.

I'm there now
I have included several striking details that other writers might have overlooked; I have included more than one original comparison; I have included several quotes that are well integrated and support my thesis.

Sentence Structure

I'm not there yet
I seldom vary the length and structure of my sentences; I seldom write complete sentences.

I'm getting there
I demonstrate some variety in the length and structure of my sentences; most of my sentences are complete.

I'm there now
I frequently vary the length and structure of my sentences; all of my sentences are complete.


I'm not there yet
I make frequent errors in spelling, punctuation, and in usage that will confuse my reader.

I'm getting there
I make some errors in spelling, punctuation, and usage.

I'm there now
I make almost no errors in spelling, punctuation, and usage.


I'm not there yet
I have no thesis statement or my thesis statement is fact rather than opinion;  I have not made a case to prove anything.

I'm getting there
I have a thesis statement but it is either too broad or too narrow to effectively defend; I have made an effort to prove my thesis statement but have not effectively done so.

I'm there now
My thesis statement is clear and defendable; I have proven my thesis statement effectively.


I'm not there yet
I have no bibliography or I have only a brief list of titles.

I'm getting there
I have a bibliography and I have made an attempt to follow the assigned format (APA or MLA); I do not have the required number of resources or a range of resources (print, electronic, etc.).

I'm there now
I have a complete bibliography with a full range of resources; I have properly followed the assigned format.


Monday, November 22, 2010

Assignments on Early Canada

Work that needs to be handed in or posted on your blog in the next 2 1/2 weeks:
  1. ASAP - post the link to your Facebook page for William Lyon Mackenzie or Louis Joseph Papineau.  Also, email the link to me to be sure that I will be able to view the page.
  2. Confederation project - if you are able to post it to your blog, do so.  If not, hand in your work to me by Friday, November 26th.  
  3. Post your essay on Louis Riel to your blog but also keep a hard copy in case of blog failure!  This is due Friday, December 10th.

Louis Riel Essay

Write a 1000 word, five paragraph essay on the following topic:  Louis Riel - Hero, Traitor, Father of Confederation, Prophet, Mad Man.  Which one was he?

You must provide historical evidence to support your opinion and your essay MUST follow the 5 paragraph format.

On your blog I will be looking for your notes, your essay, and your bibliography.  Your bibliography must be in proper APA format.  You need to have used at least one website, one electronic article, and three print sources including the textbook and the Chester Brown biography. 

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Riel - The Red River Rebellion and the Northwest Rebellion

Notes on Louis Riel: Hero, Traitor, Father of Confederation, Prophet, Mad Man.
Using highlighters, highlight the parts of the notes that are evidence for each of the above and make a note in the left margin which one it is.
These notes come from The Canadian Encyclopedia

Louis Riel

Gabriel Dumont

The Shooting of Thomas Scott.

Big Bear


  • ·       Métis leader and founder of Manitoba
  • ·       born at Red River Settlement [Man] 22 Oct 1844 - died at Regina 16 Nov 1885.
  • ·       Riel was educated at St Boniface and studied for the priesthood at the Collège de Montréal.
  • ·       1865 he studied law with Rodolphe Laflamme
  • ·       The Red River and the North-West was to be transferred from the Hudsons Bay Company(HBC) to the Canadian government.
  • ·       1869, the federal government, anticipating the transfer appointed William McDougall as lieutenant-governor of the new territory.
  • ·       John A. Macdonald sent survey crews to Red River even though the land was not yet part of Canada.
  • ·       The Métis were fearful of what would happen because of the transfer.
  • ·       They were also wary of the aggressive Anglo-Protestant immigrants from Ontario.
  • ·       There had been a grasshopper plague in 1867-8 and they were suffering
  • ·       They organized a "National Committee" of which Riel was secretary.
  • ·       Riel's education and his father's history marked him out as an obvious leader.
  • ·       The committee halted the surveys and prevented McDougall from entering Red River.
  • ·       On Nov 2 the Metis seized Fort Garry (HBC trading post) and the HBC officials offering no resistance.
  • ·       The committee invited the people of Red River, both English and French speaking, to send delegates to Fort Garry.
  • ·       Riel created a "List of Rights" for the people of Red River
  • ·       A Canadian armed resistance tried to take Fort Garry but failed and surrendered to the Metis.
  • ·       They were imprisoned in Ft Garry and Riel issued a "Declaration of the People of Rupert's Land and the Northwest"
  • ·       On Dec 23 Riel became head of the "provisional government" of Red River.
  • ·       The Canadian government sent special commissioners "of goodwill" to Red River including Donald A. Smith, chief representative of the HBC in Canada.
  • ·       The provisional government included 20 French and 20 English members.
  • ·       New government created a "List of Rights" and endorsed Riel's provisional government.
  • ·       The Canadian prisoners taken in Dec were released and plans were made to send 3 delegates to Ottawa to negotiate the entry of Red River into Confederation.
  • ·       Meanwhile a force of Canadians including surveyor Thomas Scott gathered hoping to enlist support in the Scottish parishes of Red River.
  • ·       The appearance of this armed force alarmed the Métis who promptly rounded them up and imprisoned them in Ft Garry.
  • ·       The Métis convened a court-martial at which Thomas Scott was sentenced to death.
  • ·       Scott was executed by firing squad on 4 Mar 1870.
  • ·       Bishop A.A. Taché of St Boniface in Montreal reached Red River 4 days after Scott's death.
  • ·       He brought a copy of the Canadian federal proclamation of amnesty which he believed included any actions by the Metis up to that date.
  • ·       Taché persuaded Riel's council to free all prisoners and send the delegates to Ottawa.
  • ·       In spite of opposition from the Orange Lodges of Ontario, of which Thomas Scott had been a member, the Canadian government and Riel's delegates came to an agreement.
  • ·       This lead to the Manitoba Act passed 12 May 1870, and the transfer was set for July 15.
  • ·       Also, the federal government agreed to give 1 400 000 acres (566 580 ha) to the Métis and to make bilingual services for the new province.
  • ·       Other than verbal assurances, there was no specific mention of the amnesty, however.
  • ·       The federal government sent a military force to Red River in the summer of 1870.
  • ·       The Red River Expedition was supposed to be "a mission of peace" however Riel had good reason to fear its arrival.
  • ·       Riel fled to the US.
  • ·       Later he returned quietly to his home at St-Vital
  • ·       When Manitoba was threatened with a Fenian raid from the US in the autumn of 1871, Riel offered a force of Métis cavalry.
  • ·       In Ontario Riel was widely denounced as Thomas Scott's "murderer" and a reward of $5000 was offered for his arrest.
  • ·       In Québec he was regarded as a hero, a defender of the Roman Catholic faith and French culture in Manitoba.
  • ·       Because he didn’t want a political confrontation between Ontario and Quebec, Sir John A. Macdonald tried to persuade Riel to remain in voluntary exile in the US, even providing him with funds.
  • ·       Instead Riel entered federal politics.
  • ·       Riel was successful in a by-election in 1873 and in the general election of 1874.
  • ·       Riel went to Ottawa and signed the register but was expelled from the House of Parliament.
  • ·       Although re-elected, Riel did not attempt to take his seat again.
  • ·       In Feb 1875 the federal government finally adopted a motion granting amnesty to Riel conditional on 5 years' banishment from "Her Majesty's dominions."
  • ·       Shortly after, Riel suffered a nervous breakdown and was admitted to hospital at Longue Pointe (Montréal) as "Louis R. David,"
  • ·       Later he was transferred to the mental asylum at Beauport, Qué, as "Louis La Rochelle."
  • ·       Riel was always introspective by nature and strongly religious.
  • ·       Riel became obsessed with the idea that he had a religious mission - to establish a new North American Catholicism with Bishop Bourget of Montréal as Pope of the New World.
  • ·       Riel was released in Jan 1878 and he went to the US, eventually settling in Montana, married and began teaching.
  • ·        June 1884 Riel was asked by a group of Canadian Métis to help them obtain their legal rights in the Saskatchewan valley.
  • ·       July 1884 Riel and his family reached Batoche, the main centre of Métis settlement in Saskatchewan.
  • ·       He conducted a peaceful agitation, speaking throughout the district and preparing a petition.
  • ·       Sent to Ottawa in Dec, Riel's petition was acknowledged and the federal government promised to appoint a commission to investigate and report on western problems.
  • ·       1885, Riel encountered opposition in Saskatchewan because of his unorthodox religious views, old memories of Thomas Scott's execution.
  • ·       Riel had made personal claims against the federal government (which he estimated at $35 000).
  • ·       Some suggested these claims suggested self-interest as the motive behind his political activity.
  • ·       Riel became frustrated and began to contemplate direct action.
  • ·       March 19 Riel seized the parish church at Batoche, armed his men, formed a provisional government and demanded the surrender of Fort Carlton.

  • ·       By 1885 the North-West Mounted Police had been established and a railway to the West almost completed.
  • ·       This meant the Canadian government was able to supply troops and munitions quickly.  This was very different than during the Red River Rebellion.

  • ·       During the fighting Riel led the Metis along with his military commander Gabriel Dumont to win a number of battles despite smaller numbers and inferior weapons.
    ·       The Metis were joined by the Plains people led by Big Bear and Crowfoot.
  • ·       Riel was convinced that God was directing him and saw himself as the "Prophet of the New World."
  • ·       Riel himself rarely fought, instead would raise his arms in prayer as the fighting went on around him.
  • ·       After 2 months of fighting Riel surrendered – this was called the North-West Rebellion.

  • ·       On 6 July 1885, a formal charge of treason was laid against Riel and on 20 July his trial began at Regina.
  • ·       His counsel proposed to defend him on the grounds of insanity.
  • ·       Riel denied his insanity.
  • ·       His cousin, Charles Nolin gave damning testimony.
  • ·       The jury found him guilty however they recommended a light sentence.
  • ·       3 examining physicians found Riel excitable, but only one considered him insane.
  • ·       The federal government decided in favour of hanging.
  • ·       Riel was executed at Regina 16 Nov 1885.
  • ·       His body was sent to St Boniface and interred in the cemetery in front of the cathedral.
  • ·       Politically and philosophically, Riel's execution has had a lasting effect on Canadian history.
  • ·       In the West, the immediate result was to depress the lot of the Métis. In central Canada, French Canadian Nationalism was strengthened and came to power in Québec in 1886.
  • ·       In the longer term Québec voters moved from their traditional support of the Conservative Party to the Liberal Party.
  • ·       Even after a century, Riel and his fate excite political debate, particularly in Québec and Manitoba.
  • ·       Riel's execution has remained a contentious issue even today and demands have been made for a retroactive pardon.